1: bowsprit, 2: gallery, 3: galleon, 4: gun ports, 5: mainmast, 6: main yard, 7: stern, 8: stern figure, 9: keel, 10: rudder, 11: transom, 12: ship's ladder, 13: rigging, 14: mizzen, 15: Latin sail, 16: jib mast, 17: topsail, 18: gallant, 19: topsail, 20: jib.
The 17th century galleon had three masts - the mizzen mast (at the back or stern of the ship), the mainmast in the middle, and the foremast at the front. She also had a bowsprit, the mast projecting from the bow. The fore and main masts each had 2 square sails. The mizzen had a triangular fore (the Latin sail) and aft sail. A small sail attached to the bowsprit called the sprit sail made the ship easier to steer. Sails take their name from their mast: for example on the foremast there is the foresail and the fore topsail.
If you want to see a REAL detailed picture of a VOC ship and information about shiprigging click here (4,2Mb) It is the uncompressed image of the previous page and additionally a detailed description in English and Dutch of all the rigging.
(thanks to Andrew Pratt for some minor changes.) More details in the following picture.
This is a cutout of the Batavia, from this ship a replica has been built in Lelystad in the 1980's and can be visited.
(1) Hold, (2) The tween. (3) Steerage. (4) Quarterdeck. (5) Steerage deck (6) Stern castles The captains and officer's cabins were here. (7) Halfdek Also Campaign deck. It the tropics covered with sail to give a protection against the sun. (8) Upper campaign deck or Poop Deck. (9) Fore castle sometimes the crew was here too. (10) Galleon (11) Bowsprit (12) Jibmast (13) Big mast (14) Mizzen
The average time to build a ship was something between the 3
and 8 months. The costs were somewhere between the f 90.000
- f 110.000.