[DUTCH]

Iquan.[Zheng Zhilong] and his son Koxinga [guóxìngyé] or Cheng Chengkung [zhèng chónggong]

"Teijouhan is conquered by the Jappanders by her swiftly send armada in the year 1615 and 16 [taking with them] between 3 to 4000 men strong, but because of faults of the subsidiaries, left again; thus this enterprise taken at hand by a particular Gentleman to curry His Majesties favor. For long years they have they traded with their capitals by Chineesen living in Jappan with the Chineesen of China" (Gen. Miss. December 15, 1629) (Look also at Diary of Richard Cocks, I, pp. 131 (May 5, 1616) According to Richard Cocks the Japanese called Taiwan Tacca Sanga).

"In the bay of Taijouan tended to come yearly some Japanese junks to buy deer skins, which fall there in exact quantity; but especially to trade with the adventurers of China who brought there for sale a big quantity raw silk as made [fabricated] silk cloths as from Chincheo, Nanquin as several other places of the North Coast of China" (Gen. Miss. January 3, 1624).

From these in Japan established Chinese became especially known the so-called "Capitain China" at Hirado, who was called Andrea Dittis by the Portuguese. Ernest Satow, (in The Voyage of Captain John Saris to Japan, 1613, Introduction, pp. LI.) states that he was a Christian. If this proposition was only supported by his name, then it is a weak one. More likely is that his lifestyle was as reported by the Dutch. Commander Reijers puts it as: "This goes per Cappiteijn China.... He is a cunning man has in Nangasackij but also here [Hirado] excellent houses with beautiful wives and children" Summarizing the several messages about him is the following description very likely:

The so-called Captain China in Hirado was called Ghan Shi Tse, he came from the district of Hai-ting in the prefecture of Tsiang Tsiu (in the vicinity of the port Amoy) and was married there. According to custom amongst the well-to-do Chinese immigrants, he started an affair in Japan with a Japanese woman, probably with more than one. He will have been the most important Chinese merchant and shipowner in Hirado and for that reason been addressed with the title Captain (as the Dutch Chief (Opperhooft) was also addressed by the Japanese) without ever being appointed as such;

"This Andrea Dittis is now chosen capten and cheefe comander of all the Chinas in Japon, both at Nangasaque, Firando and else wheare" (Diary of Richard Cocks, II, pp. 309, 10th of Marche 1619 [20]).

"The Chinese pirates who resorted to the island [Taiwan] as a safe retreat, were as a rule divided into bands, and, according to the scanty historical material which we have at hand, established a rough form of government over their settlements. So admirable was the organization that the different bands lived together without discord and chose their leaders by vote, while a supreme chief was appointed to look after the interests of the combined bands whenever anything arose of common concern. The strongest of them was a powerful band under the leadership of one Gan Shi-sai. Their exploits brought large returns, and by combining legitimate trade with piratical raids they eventually attained a position so formidable that smaller bands combined with them for their own protection, and thus nearly the whole of the China and Formosa trade was brought under their control. In 1621 Gan Shi-sai died, and was succeeded by Ching Chi-lung, a famous character, and the father of Koxinga [gu�x�ngy�]."J. W. Davidson, The Island of Formosa (1903) bl. 5)

Probably he was the head of a secret society [W. P. Groeneveldt, de Nederlanders in China I (Bijdr. Kon. Inst. 6, IV, 1898)]. 

He was amongst other the mediator which lead to the removal of the Dutch from the Pescadores to Taijoan and was definitely not satisfied with the way how his services were rewarded, since on November 17, 1625 was written in the Missives to Hirado:

"his satisfaction about the ours and about his pretended services was very small"

He died at Hirado on August 12, 1625 as it appeared from the Missive from Hirado dated October 26, 1625. He left big debts, amongst other to the English (Miss. Hirado November 17, 1625. Letters written by the English Residents in Japan 1623, pp. 271.).

Iekwan (also written as Iquan, Equan, Yeh-kwan) was born in the village of Tsiuh Tsi in the district of Tang Oa, in which the port Amoy also lies. His surname was Tie also written as Te and The and his personal name "the first" indicates that he was the eldest son. However he will have been a son-in-law of the above mentioned Captain China, since in messages of that time from Taiwan, it occurs more that "son" and "son-in-law" is being exchanged, so is Boijcka once called the son and then again as son-in-law of Limlacco, Captain of the Chinese in Batavia (1636 - 1645).

According to Chinese messages, belonged Iquan's own first lady in South-China to the the family Gahn and will have been a daughter of Captain China and his first lady in China. When he was young, Iquan sought refuge with an uncle of his mother's side in Macao, who sent him with as trade mission to Japan. Much like his father-in-law to be he started a relationship in Hirado with a Japanese woman, with whom he fathered a son, the later well-known Koxinga [gu�x�ngy�] also known as Cheng Chengkung [zhèng ch�nggong].

Maybe he was the interpreter who came between January 25 and February 20, 1624 from Japan to Taijoan (Groeneveldt, pp. 482 and later), maybe he was also the son of Captain China, who was expected daily from Japan. (Miss. Governor Sonck December 12, 1624).

Three junks were added to the fleet led by Muijser who was appointed on December 30, 1624 to chase Chinese junks to Manila, Two of these, added junks were of Captain China and one of his lieutenant Pedro China. They were under the command of Iquan and were back on March 20, 1625 in Taijoan.

"With Yen Ss� Ch'i [Ghan Shi Tse] and others, he [namely Iquan] opened up Formosa; he was raised by his comrades to the chief leadership on the death of the former" [August 12, 1625]. (Some episodes in the History of Amoy. China Review, XXI, 1894 - 95, pp. 87).



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