Envoy to the Great Chan (Page. 200)
for his neighbor - Sovereigns, to tighten and confirm, while he already had seen, and almost to the Realms' ruin, what [kind of] damage and harm the Sineezen had suffered from the Tartarian King of Niuche, because of the vicinity of this Realm. Especially he sought to develop chiefly the friendship and favor of the King of Korea. And having noticed that this King had sent to his Grandfather for help a number of twelve thousand militant Warriors (whom most of them were killed in action) against the Tarter, and the Emperor of Sina started to fear, that the King of Korea might abandon him, and fall to the victorious Tarter, therefor he sent him an Envoy, by whom he he had thanked himself highly for the assistance, which he had sent to his Grandfather, with added consolation-reasons about the defeat, which his people had suffered, in service of the Sineezen against the Tartars. He sent him on top of that, a very delicious gift, as from such a Monarch might be expected, promised his favors, where he could and might, which he only did with the insight, to wrest from the King, with this obligation , more help and assistance. And certainly, not without big reasons, he sought to pursue the favor of this Kong of Korea especially, while the folks of this Island, which is situated close to Japan, from the neighborhood-duty, have reasonable more strength than the Sineezen.
And, unless before is made on several places before mention of this hanging Island [=peninsula] Korea, and that the same it's inhabitants, in the description of these Sineesche Wars, will often play along in the game, I will exhibit for the Reader at forehand, in short this District, and what is to be found remarkable over there, for a more thorough explanation of which is about to be discussed.
It is doubted by the European People, if Korea is an Island or attached land. but is goes for sure, according the feeling of the most experienced Country-describers, that it is a hanging Island, that is, such Island, that lies on all sides in the water, except certain farthest end, that also is attached to the continent, and, so to say, with it clings to the continent hanging in the Sea. Since it can, as experience confirms such, not be sailed on all sides; though some say, that they have sailed around it by ship. Then that this aberration has taken her origin from this, that they think, that this certain big Island, called Fungma, situated South, across from Korea, this being Korea. But all the Sineesche Country-describers state, that this Korea is an attached land, and attached to the Re;a, Niuche in Tartary, i.e. that it is, like is being said, a Hanging Island. The Sineezen don't call this hanging Island Korea, but Chaosien, which name originates from the Japanese, and is called also by them.
To the North this Korea borders to the Realm of Niuche, North-west is has the River Yalo situated as border, and the rest is washed and surrounded by the Sea.
The whole hanging Island Korea, as big as it is, is divided in eight Counties. The middle and first of these eight carries the name of Kiuki, there is situated the most important City Pingjang, the Court of Kings. The second County, situated to the East, is called Kiang-yuen; though it used the name the name Gueipe. The third County, situated to the West, which has the name Hoanchai, had previously the name Chaosien, which is now used by the whole Island. The fourth County, amongst other situated in the South, is called Ciuenlo; but was called before Pienhan. The fifth, amongst other situated in the South-east, is called Kingxau, and was before by the foreigners and Inhabitants known as Xichau. The sixth, that situates in the South-west, is nowadays called Changcing, but was carrying the name Mahan. The seventh, situated to the North-east, and that was called Kaokiulu in previous times